The battery usually refers to the lead-acid battery, which is a kind of battery and belongs to the secondary battery. Its working principle: when charging, it uses external electric energy to regenerate the internal active material, stores the electric energy as chemical energy, and converts the chemical energy into electric energy again when it needs to be discharged.
1 How the battery works
The battery uses a lead substrate grid filled with spongy lead (also known as a lattice) as the negative electrode, and the lead substrate grid filled with lead dioxide is used as the positive electrode, and dilute sulfuric acid with a density of 1.26--1.33g/mlg/ml is used as the electrolyte. When the battery is discharging, the metal lead is the negative electrode, and the oxidation reaction occurs to generate lead sulfate; the lead dioxide is the positive electrode, and the reduction reaction occurs to generate lead sulfate. When the battery is charged with direct current, elemental lead and lead dioxide are formed at the two poles, respectively. When the power source is removed, it returns to its pre-discharge state, forming a chemical battery. The lead-acid battery can be repeatedly charged and discharged. Its single-cell voltage is 2V. The battery is a battery pack composed of one or more single-cells, referred to as the battery. 8V, 24V battery. For example, the battery used in the car (commonly known as the battery) is a battery pack of 6 lead-acid batteries connected in series to form a 12V battery. For traditional dry-charged lead batteries (such as automobile dry-charged batteries, motorcycle dry-charged batteries, etc.), distilled water should be added after a period of use to keep the dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte at a density of about 1.28g/ml; and now most of them are Maintenance-free batteries that do not require the addition of distilled water until the end of their life.
2 The role of the battery
The function of the battery is to supply power to the engine. When the vehicle is ready to start, the battery will discharge to provide power to the starter, and the starter will drive the flywheel and crankshaft to rotate, thereby starting the vehicle. When the power supply of the engine is insufficient or not started, it provides power for the electrical appliances in the car, such as the audio system and the lighting system. When the engine starts to supply power normally, the battery will collect and store the electrical energy for future use.
3 Application of battery
Lead-acid battery products mainly include the following, and their uses are distributed as follows:
Starter battery: mainly used for starting and lighting of automobiles, motorcycles, tractors, diesel engines, etc.;
Fixed battery: mainly used for communication, power plant, computer system as a backup power supply for protection and automatic control;
Traction battery: mainly used for various battery vehicles, forklifts, forklifts and other power sources;
Railway battery: mainly used for the starting and lighting power of railway diesel locomotives, electric locomotives, passenger cars;
Storage battery: It is mainly used to store electrical energy for power generation such as wind and solar energy.
4 Classification of batteries
Batteries are mainly divided into three categories: lead-acid batteries, dry-charge batteries and maintenance-free batteries. Among them, the batteries used in passenger cars that we are all familiar with are basically two types of lead-acid batteries and maintenance-free batteries. Most of the models currently on the market use maintenance-free batteries, and most Japanese cars, even high-end Japanese cars such as Lexus and Infiniti, also use non-maintenance-free batteries, that is, lead-acid batteries.